Pablo Ruiz Picasso, commonly known as Pablo Picasso, was a renowned Spanish painter and sculptor who is widely regarded as one of the most influential artists of the 20th century. While Picasso is often associated with the Cubist movement, which he co-founded, his artistic journey began with Realism and later incorporated elements of Post-Impressionism.


In his early years, Picasso embraced Realism, which was a prominent artistic movement in the late 19th century. Realism aimed to depict the world as it is, without idealization or romanticism. Artists of this movement sought to capture everyday life, often focusing on ordinary people, landscapes, and scenes of urban and rural life.

During his training at the Royal Academy of Fine Arts of San Fernando in Madrid, Picasso demonstrated remarkable technical skills and proficiency in capturing realistic details in his works. He was heavily influenced by Spanish realist painters like Diego Velázquez and Francisco de Goya, as well as French artists such as Édouard Manet and Gustave Courbet. Picasso's early works, such as "First Communion" (1896) and "Science and Charity" (1897), showcase his adherence to Realism.


While Picasso was primarily associated with the Cubist movement, which emerged in the early 20th century, his transition from Realism to Cubism was influenced by the developments of Post-Impressionism. Post-Impressionism encompassed a diverse range of artistic styles that followed the Impressionist movement and sought to explore new artistic possibilities beyond mere representation of reality.

Picasso's exposure to Post-Impressionist works, particularly those of Paul Cézanne and Henri Toulouse-Lautrec, had a profound impact on his artistic development. He admired Cézanne's approach to form and structure and Toulouse-Lautrec's bold use of color and composition.

In his Post-Impressionist phase, Picasso experimented with vibrant colors, expressive brushwork, and flattened perspectives. He embraced the freedom to distort and stylize forms, moving away from strict representation. Notable examples of Picasso's Post-Impressionist works include "Les Demoiselles d'Avignon" (1907) and his series of portraits inspired by Cézanne.

While Picasso ultimately moved beyond Post-Impressionism to develop his distinctive Cubist style, the influence of this period can still be seen in his later works, as he continued to explore and push the boundaries of artistic expression.

Overall, Picasso's early engagement with Realism and subsequent exploration of Post-Impressionism laid the foundation for his groundbreaking artistic career and shaped his innovative approach to art.